Sunday Dinner: Time

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“How did it get so late so soon?”

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Theodor Seuss Geisel

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Hyacinth

Hyacinth

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“You can’t stop time.

You can’t capture light.

You can only turn your face up

and let it rain down.”


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Kim Edwards

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“They say I’m old-fashioned,

and live in the past,

but sometimes I think progress

progresses too fast!”


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Theodor Seuss Geisel

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Clematis

Clematis

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“You may delay, but time will not.”


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Benjamin Franklin

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“It’s being here now that’s important.

There’s no past and there’s no future.

Time is a very misleading thing.

All there is ever, is the now.

We can gain experience from the past,

but we can’t relive it;

and we can hope for the future,

but we don’t know if there is one.”


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George Harrison

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Narcissus

Narcissus

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“I’m wishing he could see that music lives.

Forever. That it’s stronger than death.

Stronger than time.

And that its strength holds you together

when nothing else can.”

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Jennifer Donnelly

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Magnolia liliflora

Magnolia liliflora

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“The years teach much the days never know.”


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Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Hydrangea macrophylla

Hydrangea macrophylla

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“Don’t waste your time with explanations:

people only hear what they want to hear.”


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Paulo Coelho

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Photos by Woodland Gnome Today in 2017

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Bringing Birds To the Garden

September through December proves the best time of year for planting new trees and shrubs in our area. Woodies planted now have the chance to develop strong root systems through the autumn and winter. They are more likely to survive when planted in fall than in the spring.

My ‘to do’ list for the next few weeks includes moving various shrubs and small trees out of their pots and into the ground. And I am always most interested in those woody plants which also attract and support birds in our garden.

This post contains a revised list of  more than 30 woody plants which attract and support a wide variety of birds.  These are native or naturalized in our region of the United States.  Adding a few of these beautiful trees and shrubs guarantees more birds visiting your garden, too.

Read on for specific tips to increase the number of  wildlife species, especially birds, which visit your garden throughout the year.

-WG

Forest Garden

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Do you feed the birds?  Most of us gardeners do.  Unless you are protecting a crop of blueberries or blackberries, you probably enjoy the energy and joy birds bring to the garden with their antics and songs.  Birds also vacuum up thousands of flying, crawling, and burrowing insects.  Even hummingbirds eat an enormous number of insects as they fly around from blossom to blossom seeking sweet nectar.  Birds are an important part of a balanced garden community.

We have everything from owls and red tailed hawks to hummingbirds visiting our garden, and we enjoy the occasional brood of chicks raised in shrubs near the house. There is an extended family of red “Guard-inals” who keep a vigilant watch on our coming and goings and all of the activities of the garden.  There are tufted titmice who pull apart the coco liners in the hanging baskets to build their…

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Blossom XIII

August 15, 2016 Canna 003

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“Life isn’t meant to be lived perfectly…

but merely to be LIVED.

Boldly, wildly, beautifully,

uncertainly, imperfectly,

magically LIVED.”

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Mandy Hale

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August 15, 2016 Canna 005

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Photos by Woodland Gnome 2016
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“Love, like Fortune, favours the bold.”
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E.A. Bucchianeri

 

Blossom I
Blossom II
Blossom III
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Blossom XVIII

Milorganite Update: Remarkable Success!

An Hydrangea brought as a cutting from our last garden, has been grazed each year in this one... until this spring.

This Hydrangea, brought as a cutting from our last garden, has been grazed each year in this one… until this spring.  Might it finally bloom this summer?

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The early results of our experiment in using Milorganite as a deterrent for deer remain all positive.  A month on, we haven’t seen a single deer in our garden since applying Milorganite in early April.  We haven’t seen a deer, a hoof print, deer droppings, or any damage to the tastiest of our plants.

This is absolutely remarkable!  Spring has proven one of the busiest seasons for deer breaking through our fences and into the garden, right as tasty and tender new foliage emerges.  Damage done in these crucial first few weeks of the growing season has stunted growth and marred the beauty of plants for the entire season… in past years.

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Deer stripped this struggling little Camellia of all its leaves this past March. It happens once or twice each year, yet the Camellia hangs on. New leaves have begun to emerge from its naked stems.

Deer stripped this struggling little Camellia of all its leaves in March. It happens once or twice each year, yet the Camellia hangs on.  New leaves have finally begun to emerge from its naked stems. 

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Deer pressure in the garden increased during the last two weeks of March.  A tea rose was nibbled back to its canes the day after I pruned away the Lantana skeleton protecting it.  All those early leaves and tiny buds simply gone overnight.  That was what pushed us into accepting the counsel of other gardeners to at least experiment with Milorganite.

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This four year old R. 'Pope John Paul II' was grazed within a day when I cut back the Lantana in early March. Protected by Milorganite, it is recovering and has a few flower buds.

This four year old R. ‘Pope John Paul II’ was grazed within a day, in early March, when I cut back the Lantana growing around it. Protected by Milorganite, it is recovering now and even has a few flower buds.

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Milorganite, or Milwaukee Organic Nitrogen, is the heated and pelletized remains from the city of Milwaukee’s sewage treatment plant.  See why I was reluctant to try it?  But it was much easier and more pleasant to use than the various deer repellent sprays I’ve tried over our years in this garden.  I wanted to simply hold my breath while using most of the sprays we’ve tried!

Milorganite is a clean looking, grey material made of tiny dry pellets; much like Osmacote or pelletized lime.  There is no dust or obvious odor to my human nose.

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milorganite~

Wearing gardening gloves, I simply scooped it and broadcast spread it using a discarded plastic food container.  I made a 4′ perimeter along the inside of our fence line, and added an extra stripe of it in the plantings along our street and along our drive.

I also spread it around specific shrubs which need protecting, as added insurance, and in areas we’ve seen deer moving through the garden in past years.

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We spread a double stripe of Milorganite on both the streetside, and the garden side of our deer fences nearest the street.

We spread a double stripe of Milorganite on both the street side, and the garden side of our deer fences nearest the street.  We have Azaleas, native blueberries  and Oak Leaf Hydrangeas to protect in this area.

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I used the entire 36 lb. bag, which is advertised to cover around 2500 square feet.  This was a huge bargain:  We bought the bag at Lowes for under $13.00.  If you’ve paid top dollar for animal repellent sprays then you know a single bottle can cost twice that amount!

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Our Hostas have emerged beautifully this spring. I simply abandoned this part of the garden last season due to pressure from deer crossing through the fence and grazing heavily here.

Our Hostas have emerged beautifully this spring. I simply abandoned this part of the garden last season due to pressure from deer crossing through the fence and grazing heavily here.

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Now, we wondered whether the Milorganite would repel other mammalian visitors to our garden.  Since spreading it, we’ve continued to see rabbits munching on the front lawn and squirrels running about.  But the squirrels already had nests high up in our garden’s trees.  The rabbits were grazing in areas where I hadn’t broadcast the repellent.  We haven’t found any plants damaged by their grazing.

The number of vole tunnels we’ve found this spring has dropped dramatically, too.  Several factors have helped control the voles, particularly the many Daffodils and Hellebores we’ve planted throughout the garden in recent years.  But we’ll assume that perhaps they are avoiding ground treated with Milorganite, too.

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This little Oakleaf Hydrangea, with ferns and bulbs, gets grazed once or twice a year. So far the Milorganite has protected it this spring.

This little Oakleaf Hydrangea, with ferns and bulbs, gets grazed once or twice a year.  The Milorganite has protected it this spring.

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And we’ve been delighted to see new growth on the rose which pushed us over the edge.  It has covered itself in foliage and formed new buds over the last month.  Other roses, heavily grazed in past years, are growing happily this spring.  Covered in buds, they have actually bulked up a little!

Little Azalea shrubs, planted by previous owners of our garden, show signs of recovery, too.  Grazed to their stems over the past few years, they have been barely holding on.  But new growth is bursting forth this spring, and many of them bloomed.

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Hydrangea, Azaleas and Rhododendrons grow in the open Connie Hansen Garden in Lincoln City, OR. Deer have free run of this garden.

Hydrangea, Azaleas and Rhododendrons grow in the open Connie Hansen Garden in Lincoln City, OR.  Deer have free run of this garden.

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We realize that deer, and their fawns, form habits in early spring for where to go each day to graze.  We believe that keeping them out of our garden in these first few months of spring will help them learn to avoid visiting us during the remainder of the year.

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I surround roses and other tasty treats with fragrant herbs, which generally protect them. This baby rose grows protected by chocolate mint.

I surround roses, and other tasty treats, with fragrant herbs, which give some protection from grazing deer. This baby rose grows protected by chocolate mint.

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Deer are actually quite intelligent and resourceful.  And so we opted to re-apply another bag of Milorganite this past week.  Even though we expect an application to last between 6 and 8 weeks based on our reading, we decided to go over the perimeter and the critical areas once again after only 4 weeks.

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The wider view shows Violas also untouched this spring.

The wider view shows Violas also untouched this spring.

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We’ve had a lot of rain, and we didn’t want to take any chance that the scent would weaken and a few deer might slip in.  We probably won’t apply it again until late June or early July.

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The first rose we planted here in 2010, this shrub rose has been grazed repeatedly. In rare years we actually see it bloom. This year it hasn't been touched by grazing and so is bulking up.

The first rose we planted here in 2010, this English shrub rose has been grazed repeatedly. In rare years we actually see it bloom. This year it hasn’t been touched by grazing and so is finally growing a bit.

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But we will continue our integrated approach to discouraging deer in the garden.  Not only will we monitor our perimeter deer fences, but I still plan to plant fragrant herbs throughout the garden.  I picked up a selection of scented Pelargoniums this weekend to plant near our smaller roses, along with Basil and Lavender.

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Pelargonium 'Skeleton Rose' has lovely scent and foliage. Rarely hardy for us, I search it out again each spring.

Pelargonium ‘Skeleton Rose’ has lovely scent and foliage. Rarely hardy for us, I search it out again each spring.

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And we continue adding plants with poisonous leaves and stems, which deer won’t graze anyway.  As awful as that might sound, many of our favorite ornamental plants, like Caladiums, Daffodils and Hellebores are poisonous from leaf to root.

Other favorites have leaves deer don’t care to eat.  Lamb’s Ears, or  Stachys byzantina, most ferns, Lantana, Comphrey, Geraniums, Iris and other garden favorites have leaves with objectionable textures and scents which deer leave strictly alone.  Many ornamentals can be planted in safety no matter how many deer visit one’s garden.

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Ferns and Hellebores won't be bothered by deer.... ever.

Ferns and Hellebores won’t be bothered by deer…. ever.  Here, transplanted seedlings of Hellebore surround a newly planted Maidenhair fern.

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I walked around the garden last week admiring this spring’s growth.  All of our Hostas have emerged and are growing undamaged.  Roses and Azaleas grow ungrazed.  Our beautiful Oak Leaf Hydrangeas are bulking up undamaged, for the first time ever.  Perennials continue waking from their winter’s rest, wildflowers bloom and even the low-hanging branches and fruit on our pear tree have gone untouched.  (Deep contented sigh….)

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Daylily emerges in this bed each spring, but rarely has the chance to bloom. So far the new leaves remain untouched.

Daylily emerges in this bed each spring, but rarely has the chance to bloom. So far the new leaves remain untouched.  Apple mint runs among the Columbines, Iris, Daffodils, ferns and Vinca minor.

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I overheard some of the volunteer gardeners discussing deer damage to new plantings at the Connie Hansen Garden, when I was in Oregon last month.  I didn’t admit to eavesdropping by breaking into their conversation; I’m shy that way most times.  Deer roam freely in their neighborhood, and the split rail fences around the garden present no obstacle to the deer at all.  They were discussing what a particularly damaging spring it has been for their garden.  But I wanted to interject, “Have you tried Milorganite?” 

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Epimedium grows this spring in one of our 'stump gardens.'

Epimedium grows this spring  with Salvia and Hellebore in one of our ‘stump gardens.’

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With the zeal of a recent convert, I’d like to share our success with everyone plagued by deer in their gardens.  Finally, at long last, we seem to have found a product which effectively repels deer; excludes them, actually, long term.  It is working thus far for us, and I hope others with deer problems will soon try it, too.  Please leave a comment if you have experience with Milorganite, or another product which protects your garden from grazing deer.

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May 2, 2016 garden 015

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Because beyond the obvious benefits to our plants, the most exciting benefit has been for the gardeners:  We haven’t found a single tick since our first Milorganite application in early April.  In fact, I’ve had only one tick bite this entire year, and that was in mid-March.  My partner hasn’t had any, despite the many hours we’ve both spent outside in recent weeks.

Keeping deer out of our garden has kept ticks out of the garden, too.

May our good fortune continue….

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Woodland Gnome 2016

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Mistletoe

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Mistletoe shines so beautifully in our forest canopy on sunny days. 

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Evergreen, it catches the sunlight on clear days, and forms a beautiful lacy silhouette on cloudy ones.

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We never notice it during the long summer months when it is hidden by the leaves.  But once the trees are bare, I always watch for mistletoe colonizing trees along the way as we drive.

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One of the ancient Druid’s sacred plants, Mistletoe has been used in many ways through the ages.

It is one of the more unusual plants growing wild in our forests, feeding birds and providing cover for many different creatures.

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Read more about mistletoe here….

 

Photos by Woodland Gnome 2014

Waiting For Snowdrops

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I remember golden yellow daffodils blooming in mid-December of 2012 near the James River.  They looked so unnatural nodding their cheerful yellow heads right as Christmas lights were shining and we were deeply into holiday preparations.  They brought with them a horrible foreboding that our seasons were dangerously out of whack.

This December brought a few late roses and early Forsythia blossoms, but blessedly no daffodils. Those of us who choose to live in the temperate areas of the planet appreciate each of our seasons.  When they are out of whack, we feel a bit cheated to have missed out on the special joys and beauties of that time of year.

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No, wintery cold weather came early in 2013, and has settled into our Virginia landscape much later into the spring than we’ve come to expect.  Our bare winter landscape is browned out.  Even some evergreen leaves, normally vibrantly green throughout the winter, have been frozen into dull brownness.

Snowdrops, Galanthus nivalis, is the earliest bulb of spring.  Even their name explains their special place in the late winter garden.

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The genus, Galanthus, is derived from the Greek for “milk,” gala,” and “flower,” anthos.  All Galanthus are creamy white, so “milk flower” is an appropriate and descriptive genus name.  The species name, nivalis, means “of the snow.”  Named by Carl Linnaeus in 1735, the snowdrop is called, “milk flower of the snow.”  “Of the snow” refers to both its pristine white appearance, and also to the fact that snowdrops often bloom so early that snow is still on the ground.

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Snowdrops are our earliest bulb in the garden this year.  Not even Crocus, another early bloomer, or Muscari have opened yet.  Although I found Crocus last week on a sunny bank along the roadside in our community, none have appeared yet in our own garden.

Perhaps because our own winter has been so long and unusually cold, we treasure every jewel like bloom.  Each one is greeted with appreciation and happiness because the clear message each holds is the promise that spring has begun unfolding for us.

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Even during this warm stretch of four days we’ve enjoyed, the local weather forecasters have kept up their warnings of more snow on the way.  We’ll drop back to freezing tonight, and we expect an inch of snow on Wednesday, followed by more freezing snow and sleet by the weekend.  By Wednesday morning our own snowdrops will bravely bloom above a white carpet of fresh snow.

Galanthus nivalis are native to Northern Europe.  They are well adapted to grow and bloom in the freezing weather of late winter and early spring in zones 3-7.  Williamsburg, Virginia, is on the southern border of their range here in the United States.

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Perhaps because they are the first bulb of spring, they’ve been hybridized and planted widely throughout Europe and the British Isles.  In fact, they are so popular in Britain, Scotland, Wales and  Northern Ireland that many of us assume that to be their native habitat.

Although widely naturalized in beautiful drifts in woodlands and meadows, snowdrops, or “February fairmaids” as they are often called, probably first crossed the Channel with the Romans.  Popularized in the early Sixteenth Century, they were part of the nursery trade between Europe, The British Isles, and the Colonies in North America.  Snowdrops are so treasured in the British Isles that many avid gardeners take tours in February to see them in bloom, alongside Hellebores and early shrubs.

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Snowdrops, like many bulbs, are absolutely simple to grow.  Although it’s always wise to prepare the ground for anything, tiny snowdrop bulbs can be set into tiny drills in the ground, about 2 inches deep, covered, and left alone.  They are quite beautiful naturalized into lawn, under trees and along ponds and creeks; planted in  beds and borders or pots; or even grown in tiny pots to bring in as houseplants during late winter.

Planted in autumn, they need several weeks of cold weather before they’ll begin to grow.  I bought several dozen bulbs this year in December and planted them “second knuckle deep” in outdoor planters where I am growing Violas, Heucheras, ferns, and shrubs.  When I switch out the winter/spring plants for summer ones, I’ll lift the Galanthus bulbs and “plant them in the green” elsewhere in the garden.

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All bulbs need several weeks after bloom time for their leaves to create sugars for next year’s growth.  It is important to leave their leaves freely growing until they die back naturally in early summer.  Doing this prepares the bulb for next spring’s show, and also allows the bulb to create offsets, or new baby bulbs around its base.  When you dig bulbs out of their pots in May you’ll notice several tiny bulbs surrounding the one originally planted the previous fall.

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This is how bulbs spread, and eventually naturalize an area.  Many Galanthus, won’t produce viable seeds.  They are hybrids.  The only way to increase your bulb display year to year is to dig and divide them.  “Planting in the green” means one carefully lifts the bulb, leaving all of the leaves intact, and then gently replants the bulbs at the same depth where they will permanently grow.  Water the clump in well, and allow the foliage to continue growing until it naturally dies back.  No fertilizer is needed, but if helps any plant to give it a drink of dilute fish emulsion or sea weed emulsion from time to time.

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Galanthus really shine in a natural setting.  They are beautiful growing at the base of trees, along paths, creeks and ponds.  They are individually so tiny, at only about 5″ tall, it is best to plant a great mass of them for a big impact.  Plant them where you’ll pass them frequently and pause to enjoy their delicate beauty up close.

You might also want to mark them so you won’t forget where they are and accidentally dig them up later in the season.  Ignored by deer, they grow well in a wide range of soils, in part sun to partial shade.  They prefer moist soil when in active growth, but winter soils are generally moist in our area.

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So in our Forest Garden we are waiting and watching for snowdrops to uncurl their petals as our first tangible harbinger of the change of seasons.  Even though winter is returning to our garden tonight, we know its days are numbered, and our snowdrops promise that spring has already begun.

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Photos by Woodland Gnome 2014

“The snowdrop and primrose our woodlands adorn,
and violets bathe in the wet o’ the morn.”

Robert Burns

Pick Your Poison….

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The other evening, just after dusk, as I was walking from computer to kitchen; I happened to glance out of our front windows at the patio.  Gazing back was a beautiful doe, interrupted from perusing the buffet of our potted garden by my passing.  Her calm gaze told me she had snacked on our Violas before, and had every intention of finishing this meal, too.

Now, my friends know the extraordinary lengths my partner and I have gone to keep the deer out of our garden.  Deterring the deer has consumed our efforts, and resources, and become something of an ongoing conversation among our extended family.

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These newly emerging Heuchera leaves are growing into replace the many mature leaves recently eaten off by hungry does.

These newly emerging Heuchera leaves are growing in to replace the many mature leaves recently eaten by hungry does.

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Not yet willing to give up gardening or move elsewhere, I’ve devoted the last two gardening years to planting mostly “deer resistant” plants.  I’ve studied and compiled lists of plants the deer are “supposed” to leave alone.

We’ve surrounded vulnerable plants with smelly herbs, trialed a half dozen “deer repellents,” made the fences higher, chased the deer who have found their way in, and experimented with lighting.  My “deer resistant” Oakleaf Hydrangeas ended up nibbled to sticks. The Heuchera and Violas grown in pots at the foundation to the house have been decapitated. And, we still find hoof prints and deer scat to prove the deer’s efforts at getting in and out, on both sides of our fencing.

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Caladiums, ferns and Begonias remain my favorite plants for shade.

Caladiums, ferns and Begonias remain my favorite plants for shade.

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So what is a “deer resistant” plant?  There are plenty of things I perhaps don’t enjoy eating, but will in a bind.  Same with any creature bent on self-preservation.  And the overpopulation of deer in Virginia this year is at legendary levels.

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We’re seeing stories about them on our news.  Too many Bambis, not enough hunting, and intense pressure on the environment have left our deer especially hungry this winter.  Local drivers are encountering deer with deadly consequences here in James City County. Rutting season is now underway, and deer are running across our roads more than ever.

That is why, as I consider plant choices for the coming season, “deer resistant” is no longer good enough.

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Have you ever considered how members of the Plant Kingdom defend themselves?  Some have thorns.  Some have tough bark.  And many are poisonous.

The topic of poisonous plants is not polite conversation.

We may hear whispers of Belladonna and Oleander, but most of us have left the topic strictly alone.  Until now.

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Mountain Laurel, a small evergreen tree, blooms each May.  Since every part of it is poisonous, deer leave it alone.

Mountain Laurel, a small evergreen tree, blooms each May. Since every part of it is poisonous, deer leave it alone.

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In my reading about plants that are “deer resistant,” more and more I’ve noticed notes about some of those plants also being- poisonous.  Sometimes just the seed is poisonous, or just the leaves.

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Does this look poisonous to you?  The daffodils and Columbine are both highly poisonous.   The tiny periwinkle blue flowers and evergreen leaves of Vinca shine among the leaves.  Although not listed as poisonous, Vinca contains over 50 alkaloids and is never nibbled by the deer.

Does this look poisonous to you? The daffodils and Columbine are both highly poisonous. The tiny periwinkle blue flowers and evergreen leaves of Vinca shine among the leaves. Although not listed as poisonous, Vinca contains over 50 alkaloids and is never nibbled by the deer.

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We all know that both potatoes and tomatoes were considered poisonous until fairly recently in our history.  Their leaves are highly poisonous, as are the leaves of the poinsettia plant.  Potatoes which have turned green must be peeled due to the poisonous substances in their skin.

Sometimes the poison has a mild effect, sometimes a deadly one.  One bean from the Castor plant (Ricinus communis) is said to be sufficient to kill a cow.  Some plants may have alkaloids which cause burning of the lips and tongue, or which cause nausea without being fatal.

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Daffodils and Columbine are poisonous, and so left stricltly alone by the deer.  Daffodils are useful planted around other plants as their roots are also poisonous, and offer protection from voles.

Daffodils and Columbine survive in our garden.  The pink Phlox to the left didn’t survive the season.  It is too tasty…

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So, as I work on plans for the spring garden, I’m also compiling a list of poisonous ornamental plants which will grow in our region.  But not out of a malevolent desire to inflict harm on our beautiful and gentle woodland creatures, mind you.

Some of my best friends are Bambi lovers, and I hope to keep their friendship.  In fact, some of those friends and I have commiserated over their grazed flower beds.  Rather, I want the plants in our garden to actually have a chance at survival.

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Elephant Ear, Colocasia, contains poisonous compounds which irritate the lips, mouth, and throat.  The coleus and sweet potato vine behind it are, sadly, tasty.

Elephant Ear, Colocasia, contains poisonous compounds which irritate the lips, mouth, and throat. The Coleus and sweet potato vine behind it are, sadly, tasty.

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Whereas birds will nibble a seed here and there, and bees will suck nectar and collect pollen; deer graze a plant to oblivion.  Deer will eat every scrap of edible material, and walk away looking for more.  They have no sense of conservation or sharing.

They have no awareness of the cost of the plant they just grazed, or our anticipation at watching it actually live, and perhaps grow.  Worse, many of the plants destroyed by deer would have benefited other creatures in the forest, had they been allowed to grow.

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Every part of Hellebores are poisonous from root to flower.

Every part of Hellebores are poisonous from root to flower.

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And so it’s come to this.  Your gentle Woodland Gnome is compiling a list of poisonous plants in the hopes of making our garden a shade less appetizing and alluring.

Our hope is that the deer are canny enough to leave these lethal buds and twigs strictly alone.  This list I’m preparing is not exhaustive.  It’s culled from ornamental plants suited to our climate.  And there are probably a few plants you can add, that I’ve overlooked.

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Elephant Ears, Colocasia, and Canna lilies are never grazed by deer.

Elephant Ears, Colocasia, and Canna lilies are never grazed by deer.

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If you know of others, or can make suggestions for your own region, please be kind enough to leave a note in the comments.  At least these plants will stand a chance to survive in our forest garden this year.

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Ligustrum leaves are poisonous to deer, although the berries sustain birds each winter.

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Poisonous ornamental shrubs: 

Angel’s Trumpet:  Brugmansia and Datura

Daphne

European Holly Ilex aquifolium

Elder Sambucus

Ligustrum

Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia

Oleander

Rhododendron

Yew

Some species of Oak are poisonous

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Artemesia, also called Wormwood.

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Poisonous Perennials and Bulbs

Artemesia

Wolfsbane, Monkshood Aconitum

Columbine

Caladium

Daffodil

Bleeding Heart  Dicentra cucullaria

Elephant’s Ear Colocasia

Foxglove Digitalis

Hellebore

Hyacinth

Lily of the Valley  Convallaria majalis

Larkspur Delphinium

Plumeria

Sauromatum venosum, Voodoo Lily

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The Passionflower vine is poisonous, and strictly ignored by deer, although its fruit is edible.

The Passionflower vine is poisonous, and strictly ignored by deer, although its fruit are edible.

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Poisonous Annuals

Castor Bean Ricinus communis

Tomato leaves (though the deer have grazed my tomatoes)

Potato leaves

Poisonous Vines

Ivy Hedera

 

Passion Flower Passiflora Caerulea (leaves)

Many of these plants, like daffodils and Mountain Laurel, already grow in our garden, and have for decades.  They pose no problems for pets or people.

I was frankly surprised to learn some of these are poisonous.  But these are the plants left growing, untouched, as their less lethal neighbors suddenly are eaten.  Handled carefully, and with awareness, all of these plants can be used to create a beautiful garden, even in areas, like ours, with ever growing herds of deer.

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August 27, 2014 Parkway 024

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All Photos by Woodland Gnome 2013-2015

Deer Resistant Plant List

Keeping Deer Out of the Garden

Pyracantha

Pyracantha

Pyracantha berries in October

Pyracantha:  Love it or hate it.   Most of us have a strong opinion about this fast growing shrub.

We love Pyracantha  for its beautiful fall berries, more correctly called “pomes”, which turn bright red, red orange, orange, or yellow, depending on the cultivar, in autumn.  The berries are beautiful in the landscape, in cut flower arrangements and wreathes; and they attract songbirds.  Cedar waxwings, cardinals, blue jays, and many other back yard birds feast on the berries in late autumn.   Considered poisonous for humans, the berries are mildly hallucinogenic for birds.

Pyracantha

This Pyracantha shrub is over 15 feet tall and wide.

Pyracantha, closely related to Cottoneaster, is beautiful espaliered against a wall;  grown as a hedge or against a privacy fence;  or even grown as ground cover on a bank.  Its beautiful white spring flowers are an important source of nectar for bees and other nectar loving insects.  Its evergreen leaves are neat and look good year round.  Its dense, thorny habit provides great cover for birds and gives them very secure nesting sites.

These are Pyracantha’s good qualities, and reasons why I like having it in the garden.

Now, the bad:  Pyracantha is very large; is covered with very long, sharp thorns; and grows with a mind of its own.  It is a fast grower, and so may need trimming back several times in a season to keep it in check if grown near your home.  Since it blooms and sets fruit on old wood, hard pruning may mean sacrificing the berry crop for the coming year.  Once pruned, it sends up new growth in many directions at once.  You almost need “staff” to look after it properly if you want to keep it manicured.  Some varieties will reseed around the garden.  If grown near pathways, its thorns may reach out to grab you, which brings us back to its positive qualities.

October 17 2013 monarch bf 014Those same thorns which make it difficult to prune, also make it an excellent hedging plant.  If you want extra security around the perimeter of your property, Pyracantha is an excellent choice.  I once had a garden which backed along a busy neighborhood thoroughfare.  Although I had an 8′ privacy fence, I also planted shrubs on both the inner and outer sides of that fence.  Azaleas and Camellias went on the outside visible from the street, but I  grew some Pyracantha on the inside where it might be tempting to climb across.  Pyracantha grown along fences and property lines can reinforce boundaries against humans, deer, neighborhood dogs, and others you might want to discourage.

Hardy in Zones 5-9, Pyracantha grows well in a variety of soils and in anything from full sun to partial shade.  There is more berry production in good sunlight, but the plant tolerates a wide range of conditions.  Native to parts of Europe and Asia, Pyracantha is definitely an import in the United States.  It is one of those plants where many hybrids and cultivars are available to suit your need for size, growth habit, and berry color.  Once it is established, it’s drought tolerant and hardy, with few problems from disease or insects.  It doesn’t need fertilizer or any special care.

Pyrancantha berries, just beginning to turn color.

Pyrancantha berries, just beginning to turn color.

One of the nicest things is the ease with which Pyracantha roots.  I’ve taken stem cuttings in late spring (also called “prunings”), dipped the lower cut into rooting hormone, and simply stuck them a few inches into the soil where I wanted a new shrub to grow.   This is how I cultivated a hedge along that privacy fence.  After watering them in, I just kept an eye on them until new growth appeared.  Not every cutting rooted, but enough did that the purpose was served.   Keep in mind that most commonly available cultivars will grow to between 10′ and 20′ tall within five years.  If left alone, most will also get quite wide.  In fact, I am planning to take cuttings from my current plants, and hope to establish a lovely thorny hedge in the areas of the garden where the Bambis still try to penetrate our barriers.  Pyracantha is one of those shrubs we haven’t seen them grazing.

So we choose to love Pyracantha, but also keep a healthy distance from it.  I’m not a native plant purist, and so appreciate its benefits in a wildlife friendly forest garden.  We love its beautiful berries, and we love seeing the crazed antics of the birds eating them.  It is an utterly undemanding, unfussy, dependable shrub; and it shines in autumn when its berries brighten and its green leaves hang on tight into the winter.

A branch of Pyracantha berries which will ripen for the birds and turn orange in late October.

A branch of Pyracantha berries in mid-summer.

All photos by Woodland Gnome 2013

Serendipity

Octob 14 shelf fungus 001

A Passionflower nodding out of a peach tree?

 

Octob 14 shelf fungus 002

How could that be?

 

September 24 2013 garden 020

A wider perspective

September 7 garden 010

What an amazing vine, and what a beautiful surprise so late in the season.  Passiflora incarnata is naturalized all over the southeastern United States.   This perennial vine has had a phenomenal season, growing many many feet to first cover the deer fence, and now climb the peach tree. 

 

August 15 2013 flowers 014

The plant, dried, has been used to make tea.  It has a calming effect and can help treat insomnia. 

Native Americans and early settlers ate the fruit out of hand as you might an apple.  The fruit is still enjoyed today.  It is sometimes made into juice, and that juice can be cooked into jam and jelly.  Mostly, its flower brings a smile with its wild form and bright colors.  Especially when its found peeking out of a peach tree. 

 

August 15 2013 flowers 015

A serendipity:  A happy, unexpected surprise.

All photos by Woodland Gnome 2013

The

Still Optimistic….

One of the beautiful Oakleaf Hydrangea, "Snow Queen",  in early June, soon after it was purchased.

One of the beautiful Oakleaf Hydrangea, “Snow Queen”, in early June, soon after it was purchased.

By birth and early training, I am an optimist.  Born in that magical era of the early 60’s, when the Kennedy presidency was young; after Korea and before things exploded and went to rot in Vietnam; I grew up to the sound track of the Beetles, Joan Bayez, Arlo Guthrie, and Peter, Paul, and Mary.  John Denver saw me into adolescence in an era when I still thought he was singing about enjoying the hike.

My dad never failed to encourage me to give people and situations “the benefit of the doubt”, and his perennial optimism, having survived the Great Depression and World War II intact and educated, is ingrained in my character.

By mid- July, this Oakleaf Hydrangea still looks good, although its neighbor has already been grazed.

By mid- July, this Oakleaf Hydrangea still looks good, although its neighbor has already been grazed.

Perhaps that’s why I’ve always taken a moment to read the latest “how-to” articles in the popular press.  From learning “how to” dye fabric with roots and berries as a teen, to “how to” clean the house with only fresh lemons, baking powder, and vinegar prior to Y2K; I’m still a sucker for good advice to do the impossible with almost nothing.  My friend and I are still talking about the recent article in the “prepper press” about how to build a year round underground greenhouse garden for $300.00 or less.

Another of the new "Snow Queen" Oakleaf hydrangeas planted this season, has had only very light grazing despite its position near the street, just inside a deer fence.  I hope the Rosemary planted nearby is protecting it.

Another of the new “Snow Queen” Oakleaf hydrangeas planted this season, has had only very light grazing despite its position near the street, just inside a deer fence. I hope the Rosemary planted nearby is protecting it.

So, when a respected neighbor and garden professional recommended Hydrangea quercifolia,  or Oakleaf Hydrangea, “Snow Queen”, as a beautiful, hardy, deer resistant shrub to grow in our neighborhood gardens, I determined to give it a trial.  These beautiful shrubs attract butterflies and hummingbirds.  They are drought tolerant, need little care once established, and will grow into large plants perfect to enclose and screen an area.

I decided to use them in the lower corner of the garden, near the ravine, where I wanted a living barrier against the Bambies.  These shrubs grow quite tall, fill out to nearly 10’ wide, and will be beautiful in all seasons from their sculptural branches in winter, through their white summer blooms, to their scarlet foliage in autumn.

June 12 garden at dusk 020

These “deer resistant”, native hydrangea shrubs are planted against the “deer fencing”, where our yard goes into a wooded ravine. Fig trees grow on either side.

Our friend, Joel Patton, owner of the Homestead Garden Center in Northwestern James City County, already had a crop of H. quercifolia, “Snow Queen” growing in his greenhouses this spring; so when they came ready for sale, I purchased a half dozen with high hopes for their success.

These shrubs were healthy and beautiful when I first planted them.  They were about 2.5’ tall,  growing in gallon pots.  I planted them with plenty of compost and gravel to protect their roots from voles and get them off to a fast start.

Grazed to the stem several weeks ago, this Oakleaf Hydrangea continues to recover.

Grazed to the stem several weeks ago, this Oakleaf Hydrangea continues to recover.

I did everything for these little shrubs that I’ve recommended to others:  I sprayed them with Plant Skydd, doused them with smelly Neptune’s Harvest, mulched them with gravel, and planted them against what appeared to be an impenetrable barrier.  The only thing I didn’t do was cage them in their own little enclosures, but, these native Oakleaf Hydrangeas were supposed to be unappetizing to the deer, Right??

Wrong.  They’ve been grazed all summer.  In fact, despite repeated spraying, dousing, and reinforcing of the “deer fence”, they look more pathetic now than they have all season.  At first it was only one, and the other two continued to grow.  Now they have all been eaten back to the stem.

But, not one to give up easily, today I’ve tried yet another plan to protect them.

September 3, and this poor hydrangea is grazed back to the stem.  I've planted chives at its base and mulched it with molded coffee grounds.

September 3, and this poor hydrangea is grazed back to the stem. I’ve planted chives at its base and mulched it with molded coffee grounds.

I bought a half a dozen pots of garlic chives and onion chives on Homestead’s summer clearance sale, and planted a little smelly clump at the base of each shrub.  And, just to add another layer of protection, I’ve mulched them with moldy coffee grounds.

Onions, garlic and chives are recommended in both Gaia’s Garden: A Guide to Home Scale Permaculture, by Toby Hemenway and in Rick Austin’s Secret Garden of Survival as excellent plants to use around fruit trees and shrubs as protection from deer.  These hardy perennials clump and spread.  Their odor is a deterrent to grazing deer.  These edibles are a good addition to a “guild” of plants in a forest garden.  I hope they prove effective planted around these struggling Oakleaf Hydrangeas.September 3, 2013 garden 002

Coffee grounds are an excellent soil amendment, providing nitrogen and improving the texture of the soil.  They can be added to compost, dug into a new planting, or used as a mulch.  When allowed to age and mold on the kitchen counter in a sealed container, they develop an unpleasant odor, providing another layer of deterrent when spread around a planting.

September 3, 2013 garden 008So, am I still optimistic about this garden?  Guardedly so, yes. I’m still climbing on that steep learning curve.  There is no resting on any laurels, even as I watch the morning crowd of hummers on the lantana grow each week.  Even as I harvest a handful of bright red jalapeno peppers to share with a friend, I’m still aware that this is a wild place, and the deer still rule the neighborhood- and graze my garden at will.

All photos by Woodland Gnome, 2013

Garlic chives, now shaded, still bloom.

Garlic chives, in bloom.

  Deer Resistant Plants for James City County, VA

Living With A Herd of Deer

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