View towards Jamestown Island from the Colonial Parkway.
Did you know there was a time, not too long ago, when the most prized plants growing on regal British estates were trees imported from, “The Colonies”? I had no idea how much 18th Century British gardeners coveted North American plants- particularly our trees.
American Sycamore growing along the Colonial Parkway on the bank of the James River.
Isn’t it interesting how things are forgotten over the years, and we assume that how things are in our own experience is how things have always been. I grew up on the East coast of North America, making annual trips to view the colorful forests cloaking the Blue Ridge Mountains each autumn. I’ve always had brilliant autumn foliage to enjoy in my own yard, and lining the streets of whatever town I happened to visit. We in Virginia accept these things as part of the normal progression of the seasons. We savor them, but don’t take notice of what a rare treat we enjoy.
An oak tree growing beside the James River near Jamestown.
It was the book, Brother Gardeners: Botany, Empire, and the Birth of an Obsession, by Andrea Wulf, which opened my eyes and my mind to the treasures growing here, as weeds in the woods.
Prior to the 17th century, European, and specifically British gardens, had a limited palette of plants. The formal geometric schemes of lawn, hedge, topiary evergreen shrubs, roses, and very few summer flowers were the norm. Green and brown were the main colors found in the garden for most of the year. Hardscape paths, stairs, fountains, arbors, and structures were the relief from all of this green lawn and green hedge. Gardeners overcame and reshaped nature when creating a garden.
Dogwood in late October
The notion of working with nature was born in the colonies, and exported back to England in some measure toward the second half of the 18th century.
As European ships sailed abroad to explore and claim the world, they took as treasure not only gold and silver, but also botanical treasures from all of the lands explored. Now, very little of the plant material collected actually made it back alive to a gardener in Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, or the Netherlands. When a voyage lasts many months, things happen. Things like hungry mice and storms; gnawing insects, pirates, salt spray; and unmitigated heat and cold on the deck of a sailing ship.
Sapling Tulip Poplar trees growing along the Colonial Parkway.
But whatever seeds, bulbs, cuttings, roots, and even live plants did miraculously make it home and into the hands of a skilled gardener, were loving tended and coaxed into growing in specially built hot houses and garden plots.
Plants were grown out for seed, sold, traded, and propagated in great botanical gardens across Europe. Botanists befriended ships’ captains and crews in hopes of bribing them to bring home new specimens. And, as colonies were established, relationships sprang up between the colonists and avid collectors “back home” in Europe.
Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana growing in Colonial Williamsburg.
The fledgling scientists of the Enlightenment realized that every new species of plant contains tremendous gifts. Aside from their beauty and use in an ornamental garden, plants contain useful chemical compounds to heal, create new products, nourish, and enlighten. Some of this research continues today in the Amazon Rain Forest of Brazil and other inaccessible and remote corners of the world
Catalpa, or Monkey Cigar tree, on the Palace Green at Colonial Williamsburg. The lawn is lined with Catalpa trees of various ages, and they are absolutely stunning when in bloom. Enlarge the photo and you’ll see the long seed pods growing in early August.
The colonial era was an exciting time for discovering countless new species of plants. The gardens of Great Britain and Europe reflected the explosion of diversity by welcoming previously unknown flowers, trees, shrubs, herbs, and vegetables into their evolving and increasingly naturalistic garden schemes.
Remember, the great forests of Britain were decimated long before this era. When Maple, Tulip Poplar, Pine, Sycamore, Cedar, Dogwood, Sassafras, Magnolia and other colorful tress and shrubs from America grew in the first garden plots of importers, they were a novelty. The aristocracy quickly fell in love with these new plants, and clamored for a seed or a cutting to grow on their home estates.
Beauty Berry shrub in my garden. The small green berries will turn bright lilac in a few more weeks.
Benjamin Franklin helped build the relationships that enabled this trade between his amateur botanist friends in the American colonies and his contacts in Britain. The story told in Andrea Wulf’s book unfolds with the drama and personality of a good novel, and I recommend it to every like minded gardener, no matter which side of the pond you call your present home.
American Holly growing in my garden.
For the purposes of this post, let me just mention a few of the trees growing wild right here around Jamestown, which were collected in the Colonial era and sent back to England. These trees, common to us, opened up a whole new way to design and enjoy gardens. They were grown for their beautiful form, fall color, interesting bark, and some for their flowers.
Eventually, gardening became a passionate pursuit not only of the aristocracy, but of all Britons. As we admire their beautifully tended gardens of trees, shrubs, and flowers today, so they admired the wild and beautiful plants we sent back to them from, “The Colonies”.
Magnolia grandiflora growing along the Colonial Parkway near Jametown, VA.
Here is a partial list of trees and shrubs introduced to Britain from the American colonies:
Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple, 1725
Aesculus pavia, Red Buckeye, 1711
Colorful fall leaves were almost unknown in Britain before American species of trees were introduced n the 17th and 18th centuries.
Betula nigra, River Birch, 1736
Callicarpa americana, Beauty Berry, 1724
Catalpa bignonioides, Southern Catalpa, 1722
Chamaecyparis thyoides, White Cedar, 1736
Chionanthus virginicus, Fringe Tree, 1736
Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood, 1722
Diospyros virginiana, Persimmon, 1629
Euonymus atropurpurea, Burning Bush, 1744-6
Fraxinus americana, White Ash, 1724
Hydrangea arborescens, Wild Hydrangea, 1736
Pines along the Colonial Parkway in early October
Juglans nigra, Black Walnut, 1629
Juniperus virginiana, Red Cedar, 1664
Kalmia latifolia, Mountain Laurel, 1734
Liriodendron tulipifera, Tulip Poplar, 1638
Magnolia grandiflora, Southern Magnolia, 1734
Magnolia virginiana, Sweet Bay, 1688
A mature American Holly on the Colonial Parkway. These evergreen trees shine in winter when deciduous trees are bare.
Pinus strobus, White Pine, 1705
Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore, 1638
Sassafras albidum, Sassafrass, 1630
All photos by Woodland Gnome
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