The Red, White, and Blue

Bee Balm, Monarda, blooming in our garden today.

Bee Balm, Monarda, blooming in our garden today.

Red for valor, hardiness, and sacrifice.

It reminds us our freedoms were won, and are maintained, through blood shed for our ideals.

Magnolia

Magnolia

White for purity of intent and a fresh beginning.

Eagles flying in the clearing sky this morning.

Eagles flying in the clearing sky this morning.

 

White is also the color of radiant light from heaven; the brilliant stars shining in the night sky.

 

Morning Glory on a pruned rose cane.

Morning Glory on a pruned rose cane.

 

Blue for vigilance, perseverance, and justice.

 

Ripening blackberries grow all along the Colonial Parkway in early July.

Ripening blackberries grow all along the Colonial Parkway in early July.

 

It is interesting to consider that the colors chosen for the Colonial flags during the American Revolution,  and for the flags of our new country; are the same red, white and blue of Great Britain’s Union Jack.

 

Wildflowers in a marsh on Jamestown Island.

Wildflowers in a marsh on Jamestown Island.

 

The  French also chose red, white and blue as the colors for their flag at the time of the French Revolution in 1790.

 

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Blue is for liberty, White for equality, and Red for fraternity.   There are many other meanings to these colors in French society, which do not necessarily have meaning in the United States.

 

Rose of Sharon, or tree Hibiscus.

Rose of Sharon, or tree Hibiscus.

 

We find these same symbolic colors again and again around us every day.

Ageratum and Lavender with Dusty Miller.

Ageratum and Lavender with Dusty Miller.

In the United States, many of us regularly wear blue denim clothing.

Blue Salvia growing with Comphrey

Blue Salvia growing with Comphrey

Denim, originally a sturdy fabric for work clothing; has become a symbol of our relaxed, egalitarian, and informal way of life here.

It has been adopted by people around the world since the social revolutions of the 1960s.

Canna

Canna and scarlet sage

White, the color of purity and cleanliness, is also a part of our daily lives.  

Many of us prefer white shirts, white china, white walls, white painted wood in our gardens, white cars, and white linens.  We  grow white flowers in our gardens because they glow in the moonlight.

 

Cedar with berries

Cedar with berries

Red is the color of boldness and energy. 

We admire red sports cars.

Red product logos and red street signs demand our attention.  We wear shiny red shoes, bright red lipstick, and give red roses as symbols of our passion for life and living.

Caladium and Begonias

Caladium and Begonias  Can you spot the bumblebee?

 

Color speaks a language of its own. 

Every layer of meaning we uncover teaches us more about this world we’ve inherited, and what it means to participate in the stream of history.

Happy Independence Day!

May the Red, White, and Blue have meaning for you today, and every day.

 

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Rosa, “John Paul II”

Photos by Woodland Gnome, 2014

Nature’s Way

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Nature’s way brings elements of the natural world together into relationship.

Rarely will you find just one of anything-

Prickly pear cactus growing in a field beside the Colonial Parkway with assorted grasses and Aliums.

Prickly pear cactus growing in a field beside the Colonial Parkway with assorted grasses and Aliums.

It is our human sensibility which wants to bring order from the “chaos” of nature by sorting, classifying, isolating, and perhaps eliminating elements of our environment.

Pickerel weed growing from the mud in a waterway on Jamestown Island.

Pickerel weed, cattails, and grasses  growing from the mud in a waterway on Jamestown Island.

Nature teaches the wisdom of strength through  unity and relationship.

Gardens in medieval Europe were often composed primarily of lawns, shrubs, and trees.

A similiar group of plants growing along the edge of College Creek in James City County, Virginia.

A similiar group of plants growing along the edge of College Creek in James City County, Virginia.

This is still fashionable in American gardens today.  But it is a high maintenance and sterile way to garden.

I won’t bore you with a re-hash of the arguments for and against lawns… but will only say that wildflowers of all sorts find a home in ours.

White clover growing with purple milk vetch and other wild flowers on the bank of a pond along the Colonial Parkway near Yorktown, Virginia.

White clover growing with purple milk vetch and other wild flowers and grasses on the bank of a pond along the Colonial Parkway near Yorktown, Virginia.

And I’m not an advocate of allowing every wild plant to grow where it sprouts, either.  There are some plants which definitely are not welcome in our garden, or are welcome in only certain zones of it.

Wild grapes grow on this Eastern Red Cedar beside College Creek.  Do you see the tiny cluster of grapes which are already growing?  Grapes grow wild in our area, but many pull the vines, considering them weeds.

Wild grapes grow on this Eastern Red Cedar beside College Creek.   Do you see the tiny cluster of grapes which are already growing? Grapes grow wild in our area, but many pull the vines, considering them weeds.

But in general, I prefer allowing plants to grow together in communities, weaving together above and below the soil, and over the expanse of time throughout a gardening year.

Perennial geranium and Vinca cover the ground of this bed of roses.

Perennial geranium and Vinca cover the ground of this bed of roses.  Young ginger lily, white sage, dusty miller, Ageratum, and a Lavender, “Goodwin Creek” share the bed.

A simple example would be interplanting peonies with daffodils.  As the daffodils fade, the peonies are taking center stage.

Another example is allowing Clematis vines to grow through roses; or to plant ivy beneath ferns.

Japanese painted fern

Japanese Painted Fern emerges around spend daffodils.  Columbine, Vinca, apple mint and German Iris complete the bed beneath some large shrubs.

Like little children hugging one another as they play, plants enjoy having company close by.

When you observe nature you will see related plants growing together in some sort of balance.

Honeysuckle and wild blackberries are both important food sources for wildlife.

Honeysuckle and wild blackberries are both important food sources for wildlife.

And you’ll find wild life of all descriptions interacting with the plants as part of the mix.

The blackberries and honeysuckle are scampering over and through a collection of small trees and flowering shrubs on the edge of a wooded area.  All provide shelter to birds.  The aroma of this stand of wildflowers is indescribably sweet.

The blackberries and honeysuckle are scampering over and through a collection of small trees and flowering shrubs on the edge of a wooded area. All provide shelter to birds. The aroma of this stand of wildflowers is indescribably sweet.

When planning your plantings, why not increase the diversity and the complexity of your pot or bed and see what beautiful associations develop?

Herbs filling in our new "stump garden."

Herbs filling in our new “stump garden.”  Alyssum is the lowest growing flower.  Tricolor Sage, Rose Scented Geranium, Violas, White Sage, Iris, and Catmint all blend in this densely planted garden.

Now please don’t think that Woodland Gnome is suggesting that you leave the poison ivy growing in your shrub border.

Although poison ivy is a beautiful vine and valuable to wildlife, our gardens are created for our own health and pleasure.  So we will continue to snip these poisonous vines at the base whenever we find them.

Another view of the "stump garden" planting.  Here African Blue Basil has begun to fill its summer spot.

Another view of the “stump garden” planting. Here African Blue Basil has begun to fill its summer spot in front of Iris and Dusty Miller.

But what about honeysuckle?  Is there a “wild” area where you can allow it to grow through some shrubs?  Can you tolerate wild violets in the lawn?

Honeysuckle blooming on Ligustrum shrubs, now as tall of trees, on one border of our garden.

Honeysuckle blooming on Ligustrum shrubs, now as tall of trees, on one border of our garden.

The fairly well known planting scheme for pots of “thriller, filler, spiller” is based in the idea that plants growing together form a beautiful composition, a community which becomes greater than the sum of its parts.

Three varieties of Geranium fill this pot in an area of full sun.  Sedum spills across the front lip of the pot.  A bright Coleus grows along the back edge, and Moonflower vines climb the trellis.

Three varieties of Geranium fill this pot in an area of full sun. Sedum spills across the front lip of the pot. A bright Coleus grows along the back edge, and Moonflower vines climb the trellis.

I like planting several plants in a relatively big pot; allowing room for all to grow, but for them to grow together.

Geraniums, Coleus, Caladium, and Lamium fill this new hypertufa pot.  This photo was taken the same evening the pot was planted.  It will look much better and fuller in a few weeks.

Geraniums, Coleus, Caladium, and Lamium fill this new hypertufa pot. This photo was taken the same evening the pot was planted. It will look much better and fuller in a few weeks.

This is a better way to keep the plants hydrated and the temperature of the soil moderated from extremes of hot and cold, anyway.

But this also works in beds.

Two different Sages, Coreopsis, and Lamb's Ears currently star in this bed, which also holds daffodils, Echinacea, St. John's Wort, and a badly nibbled Camellia shrub.

Two different Sages, Coreopsis, and Lamb’s Ears currently star in this bed, which also holds daffodils, Echinacea, St. John’s Wort, and a badly nibbled Camellia shrub.  The Vinca is ubiquitous in our garden, and serves an important function as a ground cover which also blooms from time to time.  The grasses growing along the edge get pulled every few weeks to keep them in control.  

Choose a palette of plants, and then work out a scheme for combining a repetitive pattern of these six or ten plants over and again as you plant the bed.  Include plants of different heights, growth habits, seasons of bloom, colors and textures.

So long as you choose plants with similiar needs for light, moisture, and food this can work in countless variations.

A wild area between a parking lot and College Creek.  Notice the grape vines growing across a young oak tree.  Trees are nature's trellis.  Bamboo has emerged and will fill this area if left alone.  Beautiful yellow Iris and pink Hibiscus and Joe Pye Weed grow in this same area.

A wild area between a parking lot and College Creek. Notice the grape vines growing across a young oak tree. Trees are nature’s trellis. Bamboo has emerged and will fill this area if left alone. Beautiful yellow Iris, Staghorn Sumac,  pink Hibiscus and Joe Pye Weed grow in this same area.

This is Nature’s way, and it can add a new depth of beauty to your garden.

It can also make your gardening easier and more productive.

It is important to observe as the plants grow. 

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If one is getting too aggressive and its neighbors are suffering, then you must separate, prune, or sacrifice one or another of them.

Planting flowers near vegetables brings more pollinating insects, increasing yields.

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Planting garlic or onions among flowers has proven effective in keeping deer and rabbits away from my tasty flowering plants.

Planting deep rooted herbs such as Comfrey, Angelica, and Parsley near other plants brings minerals from deep in the soil to the surface for use by other plants.

Perennial geranium growing here among some Comfrey.

Perennial geranium growing here among some Comfrey.

Use the leaves from these plants in mulch or compost to get the full benefit.

Planting peas and members of the pea family in flower or vegetable beds increases the nitrogen content of the soil where they grow, because their roots fix nitrogen from the air into the soil.

Purple milk vetch is one of the hundreds of members of the pea family.

Purple milk vetch is one of the hundreds of members of the pea family.

Planting Clematis vines among perennials or roses helps the Clematis grow by shading and cooling their roots.

The Clematis will bloom and add interest when the roses or perennials are “taking a rest” later in the season.

Japanese Maple shades a Hosta, "Empress Wu" in the Wubbel's garden at Forest Lane Botanicals.

Japanese Maple shades a Hosta, “Empress Wu” in the Wubbel’s garden at Forest Lane Botanicals.

Just as our human relationships are often based in helping one another, so plants form these relationships, too.

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The more you understand how plants interact with one another, the more productive your garden can become.

It is Nature’s way…

A "volunteer" Japanese Maple grows in a mixed shrub and perennial border in our garden near perennial Hibiscus.

A “volunteer” Japanese Maple grows in a mixed shrub and perennial border in our garden near perennial Hibiscus.

 

Photos by Woodland Gnome 2014

Forest Lane Botanicals

Forest Lane Botanicals display garden.

Is It Christmas Without A Tree?

Our community Christmas tree

Our community Christmas tree

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My dad used to always know someone with some property in the country where we could cut a tree for Christmas.  It was a much anticipated family outing in the week before Christmas.  He brought his old hand saw and some rope.  We would walk together around the fields, considering one cedar tree and then another, until we found the perfect Christmas tree for the year.

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Cedar trees growing along the bank of College Creek in Williamsburg.

Cedar trees growing along the bank of College Creek in Williamsburg.

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It needed to be taller than Dad, but not too tall.  We looked for one that was full and fat and without obvious holes or defects.  Once we had all agreed on the best tree, Dad cut it, and we helped carry it to the family car, where it was carefully tied on top.  Once home, Dad brought it into the living room and set it into the tree stand with fresh water.

We never paid for a Christmas tree.  It was all transacted with a friendly conversation and handshake.  And we were always thrilled to have it.  The house finally “smelled like Christmas” after we brought home the tree.  Cedars are a common tree in Virginia and crop up as volunteers in fields and along the edges of the woods.  We put up a cedar tree each Christmas until I was grown and away from home.

I’ve always considered the process of finding and bringing home the tree part of the fun of the season.  Whether the tree was found in a friend’s field, outside of the Food Lion, from a charity Christmas tree lot, or from our friends’ garden center; I’ve always loved bringing home and decorating the annual Christmas tree.

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My parents' tree in 2011

My parents’ tree in 2011

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I can remember lying on the floor looking up through the tree at all of the lights and ornaments.  The same old ornaments took on fresh glamour hanging among the tiny colored lights.  When I was a child, my mother constructed little villages beneath the tree with ponds, skaters, trains, and houses.  We would play under the tree in the evenings, enjoying its glow and fragrance.  But the presents never appeared until Christmas morning.

In my father’s childhood the Christmas tree was part of the Christmas morning surprise.  It appeared after he and his brothers had gone to bed on Christmas Eve, and was seen for the first time on Christmas morning lit and skirted with gifts from Santa.

Now, many families bring out their Christmas trees on Thanksgiving weekend.  Carting the artificial tree out of storage goes along with leftover turkey, and it’s certainly up and decorated before the children return to school on the first Monday of December.  Families enjoy the tree for the entire month, and then pack it away again before the New Year.

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The tree is an integral part of our Christmas celebrations.  Whether living or fresh cut; plastic, metal, or tinsel; large or small; our Christmas tree is the center of our Christmas decorations.  Gifts are somehow “blessed” by being laid beneath the tree.  We cover the tree in lights and adorn it with ornaments which have meaning and relevance to our lives.

The first Christmas tree in Williamsburg was lit in 1842.  A William and Mary classics professor, Charles Minnigerode, newly emigrated from Germany, put up the tree for the children of his colleague, Nathaniel Tucker, at the St. George Tucker House, where he was boarding.  The tree was trimmed with candles, cut paper ornaments, and gilded nuts. Other Williamsburg families adopted the custom the following year, and there have been Christmas trees in Williamsburg every since.

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A variety or ornaments decorate this tree, including origami, blown glass balls, bows, and lights.

A variety or ornaments decorate this tree, including origami, blown glass balls, bows, and lights.

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The Christmas tree became popular in England after one was decorated at Windsor Castle for Queen Victoria by her husband, Albert, in 1841.  Albert brought the custom with him from his native Germany where trees were trimmed with candles to look like stars in the starry sky.  Ornaments included sweets tied onto the tree with ribbons.  The royal family, of German descent, had enjoyed small Christmas trees in the palace as early as 1800 hung with sweets for the children at royal parities, but the practice became popular throughout England after an illustration of Victorian and Albert with their children around a Christmas tree was published in a London paper.  A similar illustration ran in an American paper the following year, and the custom soon spread throughout the country.

German families had been cutting small evergreen fir trees and bringing them indoors to decorate with candles and sweets since at least the 16th century. Wax and gingerbread ornaments were sold at Christmas markets as souvenirs, and the first tinsel, made from real silver, had been produced in 1610.  Each member of the family often had their own tabletop tree, decorated with their own ornaments, where their presents were placed.  Most ornaments were home made from paper, fruit, nuts, candy, or baked goods.  Paper flowers in red or white were used to make the tree resemble the “tree of paradise” from the garden of Eden, and ornaments were symbols of plenty.

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This hand made ornament uses a real oyster shell and cultured pearl, hung with a ribbon.

This hand made ornament uses a real oyster shell and cultured pearl, hung with a ribbon.

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In the 15th century there are records of trees decorated with sweets and small gifts erected in guild halls in northern Germany.  Apprentices and children of guild members collected gifts from the tree on Christmas Day.  Community trees were also sometimes erected out of doors in the market.  Young people often danced around the trees.

Colonists in Virginia, like many families in England, used evergreen branches to decorate for Christmas. The first Christmas trees appeared after 1842.

Colonists in Virginia, like many families in England, used evergreen branches to decorate for Christmas. The first Christmas trees appeared after 1842.

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There is a long tradition of venerating trees in Europe.  Evergreen trees or branches were brought indoors at the winter solstice as early as the 12th century, and hung upside down from the ceiling.  Their triangular shape was used to explain the Christian trinity.  Branches of evergreen plants have been used indoors during winter to symbolize eternal life since ancient times all over Europe, the Middle East, India, and Asia.

The ancient Celtic people venerated trees and associated specific trees with the gods and goddesses of their mythology.  The Druid priests hung golden apples and lit candles on oak trees to celebrate the winter solstice.  Romans decorated evergreen trees with small gifts, and topped the tree with an image of the sun during Saturnalia.  When Christianity spread across Europe veneration of trees continued, and trees were incorporated into the Christian teachings.  Trees grew in popularity in Germany after the Protestant Reformation.

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A star on top of the Christmas tree has its roots in ancient custom.

A star on top of the Christmas tree has its roots in ancient custom.

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Christmas trees became popular throughout Europe and North America during the 1840s.  Although there are records of individuals, of German heritage, constructing Christmas trees in North America before that time; the custom didn’t catch on until after the illustration of the Royal family’s tree from Windsor Castle was published.

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Many people use a combination of hand made and purchased ornaments on their tree.

Many of us use a combination of hand made and purchased ornaments on their tree.

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German made glass Christmas ornaments were introduced in England by the 1870’s and Woolworths store made them available in America in the 1880s.  Before this ornaments were made by hand for the family tree.  Electric Christmas lights were patented in America in 1882 and metal hooks for hanging ornaments were patented in 1892.  German glass ornaments remained the “gold standard” of ornaments for many years. After 1918 export issues made it harder to get German ornaments. The United States began producing Christmas ornaments.  After World War II Japan, and then China, began producing Christmas ornaments for the United States.  Most of our Christmas decorations are now manufactured in China.

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December 6 2013 tree 005

By the 1890s Americans were bringing larger trees home and the table top tree popular in Europe was replaced by the full sized floor to ceiling trees we enjoy today.  By 1900 “themed” trees became popular and mass produced Christmas ornaments were widely available on the East Coast.  Out west, those who put up Christmas trees were still making many of the decorations by hand.  Tin ornaments grew in popularity.  Some families created Christmas trees by wrapping branches of hardwood trees in cotton batting to resemble snow.

Germany first produced the “goose feather” tree in 1880.  These were made to protect the evergreens trees which were getting butchered each year across Europe to meet the demands for Christmas trees.  These were small table top trees, and caught on in England, especially when Christmas trees became less popular after Queen Victoria’s death.

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December 6 2013 tree 007

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Other manufacturers followed with “bottle brush” trees, and the first aluminum tinsel trees appeared in the 1950s. Popularity for artificial trees increased, and by the 1970’s American manufacturers produced the first realistic green plastic artificial trees.  These have improved in quality and appearance ever since.  Sears, Roebuck and Co. offered its first artificial Christmas trees in 1883.

The most popular artificial trees today are already wired with lights and decorated with small cones and berries.  You simply set them up and plug them in.  Some families have a place to store them, assembled and decorated, from January through November. The trees are simply moved into place, plugged in, and the festivities begin again each year.

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December 20, 2014 tree 002.

The Christmas tree tradition appeared to come full circle when potted living trees grew in popularity in the United States as a part of our environmental movement.  These small, living table top trees live indoors in pots during the Christmas season, and can be planted out in the garden afterwards.  The trick, of course, is to keep them watered and alive indoors until they can be planted out.

A National Christmas tree has been lit each year at the White House since 1923. Other large public trees are decorated each year, including the tree at Rockefeller Center in New York City, which has been decorated and lit each year since 1933.  Some of these have been living trees, transplanted in place to serve as a living Christmas tree used again and again each year.  This has not proven very successful over time as the trees are often damaged during the decorating process, or by the weight and heat of the lights and ornaments.  Many question whether cutting and transporting these huge, majestic old trees for a few weeks of decoration is a good practice or not.

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This hand blown ornament from Washington State's Glass Eye is made with volcanic ash.

This hand blown ornament from Washington State’s Glass Eye is made with volcanic ash.

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Concern for the damage done by cutting Christmas trees each year has been ongoing in Europe since the 19th century.  Although Christmas trees were first offered for sale in the United States after 1850, they were cut from the wild.  Evergreen forests were being decimated, and President Theodore Roosevelt tried to discourage the practice of cutting Christmas trees out of concern for our forests.

The first Christmas tree farms sprung up to meet the demand for trees in 1901, and have been providing trees to American families ever since.  Of the 30 million cut Christmas trees sold each year in the United States, almost all are grown on Christmas tree farms.  The most popular trees grown for the American market include varieties of spruce, fir, pine, and cedar.

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Harvesting trees cut from the wild for Christmas harms the environment, but trees grown on a farm for Christmas actually help in many ways.

Harvesting trees cut from the wild for Christmas harms the environment, but trees grown on a farm for Christmas actually help in many ways.

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Christmas tree farms are important because trees are planted each year to replace those cut.  During their years of growth, trees filter carbon and air pollution from the air, fixing it in their trunk and branches.  They protect the land from erosion, provide habitat for birds, and allow families to earn a living on land too steep and rocky for other types of farming.  After Christmas the trees are still useful when ground up for mulch, burned as firewood, or used to protect beaches or other areas from further erosion.  Most cities will collect and recycle Christmas trees in January.

My parents finally bought an artificial tree some time in the 80’s when a doctor diagnosed my dad’s allergies to evergreens.  We wondered why he was sick so often for Christmas, and we found out he was reacting to our family Christmas tree.  Families who buy artificial trees do so for many different reasons.  I tried an artificial tree a few years, but always missed the fragrance and feel of the real thing.  Our most recent artificial tree, left behind in the garage by the previous owners, sits in the basement draped in lights; ready to plug in should we ever bring it upstairs again.

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Cedar trees left to grow mature into large trees which feed and shelter wildlife.  Their wood is fragrant and valued  for building and for lining closets and trunks.

Cedar trees left to grow mature into large trees which feed and shelter wildlife. Their wood is fragrant and valued for building and for lining closets and trunks.

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Today, as much as we love our Christmas trees, we almost take them for granted.  When they stay up for weeks at a time and are covered with trinkets made in China, they lose some of the wonder and mystery trees had back in the day.  Once upon a time, the tree was the gift; and the Christmas tree was covered in tiny gifts and treats lovingly tied on with ribbons and string.  It was magical, lit for a few moments with living fire, appearing in the dark days leading up to Christmas.

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December 12, 2014 ornaments 022.

 

O Christmas tree, o Christmas tree
How loyal are your leaves/needles!
You’re green not only
in the summertime,
No, also in winter when it snows.
O Christmas tree, o Christmas tree
How loyal are your leaves/needles!

Ernst Anschütz, 1824

All Photos By Woodland Gnome 2013-2014

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